By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth variation Preface to 3rd version Preface to moment variation Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists research? what's a sociolinguist? Why will we say an identical factor in numerous methods? What are different methods we are saying issues? Social components, dimensions and causes part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups identifying your style or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in numerous groups Language dying and language loss elements contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic forms and multilingual countries Vernacular languages typical languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and legitimate languages making plans for a countrywide legit language constructing a regular style in Norway The linguist's position in language making plans part II: Language edition: concentrate on clients 6. neighborhood and social dialects neighborhood version Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech adjustments: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech beneficial properties: social dialect learn Gender and social classification factors of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded beneficial properties of speech Age and social dialect information Age grading and language switch eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language swap edition and alter How do alterations unfold? How can we learn language swap? purposes for language swap part III: Language version: specialize in makes use of 10. variety, context and sign in Addressee as a power on kind lodging idea Context, variety and sophistication variety in non-Western societies sign in eleven. Speech services, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The services of speech Politeness and handle varieties Linguistic politeness in several cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self assurance interplay Gossip The linguistic development of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and conception Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social classification, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness idea Ethnography of talking Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) severe Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols word list Index
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Extra resources for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Mm? (Switch between Spanish and English) In (a), Tamati uses a Maori tag at the beginning of his utterance while the Mandarin speaker in (b) uses a final tag. This kind of switching is sometimes called emblematic switching or tag switching. The switch is simply an interjection or a linguistic tag in the other language which serves as an ethnic identity marker. The exchange in (c), for instance, occurred between two Mexican Americans or Chicanos in the USA. By using the Spanish tag, M signalled to A that she recognised the relevance of their shared ethnic background to their future relationship.
Box 3 describes the situation of politically united groups where two languages are used for different functions, but by largely different speech communities. This is true for Haiti, since most people are monolingual in Haitian Creole. e. g. the French-speaking elite in 19th century Russia and in 11th century Norman England. There will, of course, always be some bilingual individuals who act as go-betweens, but the overall pattern is one of diglossia without bilingualism. Box 4 describes the situation of monolingual groups, and Fishman suggests this is typical of isolated ethnic communities where there is little contact with other linguistic groups.
University students in countries which use English for tertiary education, such as Tanzania, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, often find it easier to discuss their university subjects using English, for example, just as the students from Hemnesberget used standard Norwegian rather than the local dialect to discuss national politics. Not all factors are relevant in any particular context, but they can be grouped in ways which are helpful. In any situation, linguistic choices generally indicate people’s awareness of the influence of one or more of the following components: 1.
An introduction to sociolinguistics by Janet Holmes.